FCAS, MAAA, CERA
Principal and Consulting Actuary

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Robert J. Walling III

Robert Walling is a Principal and Consulting Actuary with Pinnacle Actuarial Resources, Inc. and has been in the insurance industry since 1989, consulting since 1997. He is focused on actuarial studies for captives and self-insureds, enterprise risk management (ERM), commercial lines ratemaking and loss reserving, legislative costing, regulatory consulting and litigation support. He has consecutively been named one of Captive Review’s Captive Power 50. He has served on numerous CAS and AAA committees, task forces and working groups, several as the chair. He is also a member of the faculty of the International Center for Captive Insurance Education (ICCIE). Mr. Walling is a frequent speaker at industry meetings on captives and alternative markets, ERM, insurance regulatory issues, medical professional liability and government insurance program topics, predictive analytics and professionalism.

Publications and Media

September 13 2018 APEX Webinar
Technology’s Impact on Personal and Commercial Auto Insurance
Authored by Gary C. Wang and Robert J. Walling III.

Focused on Insurtech: Don’t Miss the Bigger Picture

Authored by Robert J. Walling III.

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Case Studies

Audit Support & Risk Transfer

Audit Support & Risk Transfer

Pinnacle provides audit support for captive insurers to a major accounting/audit firm. The audit support typically includes a review of the actuarial report and supporting documents to determine if the actuarial report adheres to professional standards and provides a reasonable estimate of held reserves. As part of this support we interact with the actuaries who developed the report in order to answer any relevant questions. Another frequent element of audit support engagements is risk transfer analysis. Pinnacle has developed a state-of-the-art approach to risk transfer modeling; our publications and presentations at industry trade shows have been well received. Ultimately, Pinnacle produces a report with relevant comments and our conclusions that provide the necessary documentation for the auditing firm.

Product Development

Product Development

Pinnacle was retained to develop a long haul trucking pricing model for risks with more than 100 powered units. Using publicly available information, a model that incorporated elements of both exposure and experience rating was developed that incorporated differences in geographic location, cargo and trailer type, radius of operations, driver characteristics, prior claims experience, prior insurer, self insured retention, driver characteristics and several other elements. The program was implemented and has become an essential part of a very successful program.

U S Domestic Statement of Actuarial Opinion

U S Domestic Statement of Actuarial Opinion

Domestic U.S. property/casualty insurers and risk retention groups are required to file an Annual Statement with state regulators each year by March 1. Part of that filing includes the submission of a formal Statement of Actuarial Opinion (SAO) by a qualified Appointed Actuary as to the reasonableness of held loss and loss adjustment expense reserves. The SAO must be one of five types:

  • Reasonable
  • Inadequate/Deficient
  • Excessive/Redundant
  • Qualified
  • No Opinion

In addition to the SAO, most jurisdictions require an Actuarial Opinion Summary (AOS) providing more detail on the Appointed Actuary’s specific findings by March 15. Lastly, a formal report narrative in support of the SAO and AOS is required to be available by May 1.

As the SAO is a compliance document, the primary audience is state regulators but the individual company must arrange for the service to be provided.

A recent SAO for one of our clients touched on many of the required disclosures:

  1. The adequacy of held reserves on a net basis were below the low end of our range of reasonable reserves until we took into account anticipated salvage and subrogation recoveries.
  2. The unearned premium reserves for long duration contracts were substantial and we conducted a review to determine they were adequate
  3. The Company held material loss and loss adjustment expense reserves for pools and associations. In order avoid having to issue a Qualified Opinion, we separately computed indicated reserves for two of the pools/associations, and obtained an SAO from the Appointed Actuary for the National Workers Compensation Reinsurance Pool.
  4. Reinsurance recoveries were in doubt for certain carriers as balance were sometimes overdue by more than 90 days. After reviewing the reinsurers’ A. M. Best ratings, we made the required disclosures about reinsurance collectability. 

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